All interviewees drew from direct experiences of family members, friends, co-workers, and neighbors who gamble. The interviews were coded and developed into themes that described patterns of systemic issues contributing to problem gambling in the Asian community. Data analysis drew upon elements of thematic analysis and the framework method (50–52). Before analysis, a list of priori codes was developed based on research literature and used as the basis for a codebook. The researchers initially coded independently for two rounds before meeting to discuss their findings and determine main codes.
Additionally, the demands on the ethnic communities themselves constrained the interviewing process. Therefore, sample sizes for some ethnic groups, particularly Korean and Vietnamese participants, resulted in insufficient representation for disaggregation of data. Despite this, we still found notable heterogeneity by ethnic communities that should be investigated in future research. The distribution methods of large gambling studies in the US, often available in English only, results in an invisibility of Asian data.
According to the experts’ reports, at present, the fastest-growing market in the world is the Asia-Pacific region. In general, the Asian-Pacific market has a tendency to increase gambling revenues, as well as the spread of legalization. Nowadays, countries with legalized gambling make huge profits, and in states where gambling is illegal, offshore casinos are very popular. Below, we will take a closer look at the major countries in the gambling market of the Asia-Pacific region. Vietnam has strict regulations, and for decades all forms of gambling were completely banned. The tide, however, seems to have turned in 2018, with the legalization of betting on football, horse racing, and greyhound racing and the opening of casinos reserved to holders of foreign passports.
The stress from work and daily life as an immigrant is exacerbated by a lack of outlets to relieve that stress. Some participants expressed what they felt was the strategic nature of the bus schedules. For example, one participant spoke of the buses being available once restaurant workers got off work. Considering the dearth of available recreation activities available to off work restaurant workers, the casino buses offered an easy and https://betterthisworld.com/card-game/poker-face-famous-card-games-that-really-challenge-your-acting-skills/ low-cost entertainment option for them to relieve stress. One participant spoke of friends in the restaurant industry who would get off a long stressful day of work, hop onto a bus to the casino, and then return on the bus before their next shift living a cycle of work to the casino and back. The recruitment process resulted in a convenience sample as those recruited were from the ethnic groups served by the current coalition partners.
Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte is also set to resume casino licensing following a temporary ban on new permits after a glut of gambling establishments. South Korea already has 20 casinos in Seoul, Incheon and Busan, which are only open to foreigners. Japan plans to make up the lost taxes from Pachinko’s decline by luring China’s growing wealthy and middle-class tourists to the new gambling establishments. The government said last week that eight cities and prefectures are now involved in a fierce battle to secure the right to host one of the resorts.
For a long time, casinos in Vietnam were available only to foreigners but in the last few years, the government has been considering the legalization of gambling. It is noteworthy that gambling in South Korea is oriented almost exclusively to tourists. Citizens of this country have access to the one and only gambling establishment – Kangwon Land Casino located in a picturesque mountainous area on the site of mines. In order to get to this place from Seoul, people need to spend approximately three hours driving the car, and the journey by train takes even more time – five hours.
That said, China does allow its citizens to take part in gambling under specific circumstances. For example, Chinese gamblers can visit Hong Kong or Macau to gamble at casinos or participate in state-run lotteries. The ban on gambling has also led to a vibrant underground gambling scene, including online casinos and brick-and-mortar casinos that operate illegally. Gambling in China is illegal, with the exception of the two state-run lotteries — the Welfare Lottery and the Sports Lottery. However, Chinese nationals can gamble in two special administrative regions of the People’s Republic, Macau and Hong Kong.
These two motivations were distinctly separated by participants, but both stem from a feeling of desperation and a desire to supplement income. An interviewee stated that gambling represents a “hope that they can have freedom of money” and was rooted in a desire to escape poverty. Community fieldworkers were provided with materials to guide the interview process including a step-by-step interview process checklist, informed consent forms, informed consent documentation logs, and the interview question guidelines. Community fieldworkers were trained to adapt to the situation of the interview and probe participants to elaborate on their answers. Particularly, the objective of this study is to focus on community perceptions of gambling within each ethnic community rather than specific experiences of individuals with gambling problems. Pachinko, a pinball-like slot machine, is Japan’s favorite form of gambling.
- When possible, interviews were conducted in pairs with one fieldworker taking the lead to conduct the interview and another taking notes.
- Certainly, like any other region, it has a number of characteristics, which will be discussed below.
- There are even several online casino games that can claim some sort of ancestry to the games of old, such as bingo or baccarat.
- Just ordering a drink or looking at a menu presents challenges and adds to stress.
- As Asian immigrants struggle to make a living and experience a sense of loneliness, boredom, and isolation due to linguistic and cultural barriers, they turn to gambling for to relieve stress and find a community.
Macau is the world’s largest casino hub, with more than 40 million tourists visiting its glitzy and lavish casino resorts looking for top poker, baccarat, pai gow, roulette, and blackjack games. Even though China bans all forms of gambling, Macau is a special administrative territory, which allows it to run casinos freely. Gambling accounts for more than 50% of all revenue in Macau, which is estimated to be worth over $50 billion per year.